The Nuclear Energy Policy
Nuclear energy policy is the national and international policy for some or all aspects of atomic energy and the cost of nuclear fuel, such as uranium mining, orrogenic concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel, generation of electricity by nuclear energy, storage and reprocessing molecular fuel. , And radioactive waste disposal.
Molecular energy policies often include standards related to energy consumption regulation and nuclear fuel cycle. Other measures include the rules of efficiency, safety regulations, emissions standards, financial policies and energy trade, migration of nuclear waste and contaminated material and their storage. Governments can subsidize nuclear power and can manage international treaties and trade agreements regarding the import and export of nuclear technology, electricity, nuclear waste, and uranium.
Since 2001, the term Nuclear Renaissance has been used to look into the revival of the potential nuclear power industry, but nuclear power generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999.
In March 2011, Fukushima I was reviewing its nuclear power programs after the nuclear accidents, China, Germany, Switzerland, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Philippines. Indonesia and Vietnam are still planning to build a nuclear power plant. Thirty-one country operates nuclear power stations, and many new reactors are built in China, South Korea, India and Russia. In June 2011, countries like Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Israel, Malaysia, and Norway have nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear weapons.
Since nuclear technology and nuclear weapons technology are closely related. Military aspirations can act as a factor in energy policy decisions. Fear of nuclear exposure influences some of the international nuclear energy policies.
The Global View
After the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the public fear of nuclear power caused a virtual barricade in reactor construction. And many countries decided to completely shut down the nuclear power. However, the need for increasing energy was believed to require new sources of electric power. And increasing biological fuel prices with concerns about greenhouse gas emissions increased the molecular energy and molecular renaissance predictions.
In 2004, the largest producer of nuclear power was the United States. Which was 28% of the world’s capacity, followed by France (18%) and Japan (12%). Moreover, In 2007, 31 countries operated nuclear power plants. In September 2008, the IAEA estimated nuclear power to be 12.4% to 14.4% of the world’s electricity generation in the 2030s.
In 2013, nearly two years after Fukushima, according to the IAEA, there are 390 operating nuclear production units worldwide, less than 10 percent less than Fukushima, and Chernobyl is exactly the same in 1986. Despite the constant uncertainty in energy perspectives for others in Japan, South Korea and other regions. The primary growth market for atomic energy in the near future. As of 2014, 63% of all reactors worldwide are in Asia.
The Nuclear Policy Issues
Disruption of nuclear accidents and radioactive waste is a major concern. Other concerns include nuclear proliferation, high cost of nuclear power plants and nuclear terrorism.
For some countries, molecular energy gives energy independence. In French words, “we do not have a call, we have no oil, we do not have gas, we have no choice.” Japan – such as the lack of indigenous natural resources for the power supply based on 1/3% of its nuclear energy mix before the Fukushima nuclear disaster; Since March 2011, Japan has sought to offset the loss of nuclear power with reliance on imported liquefied natural gas, which has led to the loss of the country’s first trade in decades. Therefore, future discussions for nuclear energy associated with the use of energy security and energy mix, including the development of renewable energy.
Nuclear power is not affected by structures, and uranium used in “reliable” countries, including Australia and Canada.
Nuclear Energy History And Tread
Supporters have long estimated the anticipated growth of nuclear power, but major accidents and higher costs have kept very low. In the year 1973 and 1974, the International Atomic Energy Agency predicted 3,600 to 5,000 gigatettes of nuclear capacity installed worldwide by 2000. By the year 2000, the IAEA’s 1980 estimated establishment capacity was 740 to 1,075 Gigawatt. Even after the 1986 Cherobil catastrophe, the nuclear energy agency predicted the installed nuclear capacity of 497 to 646 gigates for 2000. By 2000 the actual capacity was 356 gigatots. In addition, construction costs often fail to meet the optimistic estimates of “unlimited cheap, clean and safe electricity”, in higher proportion, and more than the estimated time.
Since 2001, the term Nuclear Renaissance has used to look into the revival of the potential nuclear power industry. Which takes into account the rising concerns of rising fuel prices and new greenhouse gas emissions limitations. However, nuclear power generation in 2012 at its lowest level since 1999. And new reactors under construction in Finland and France. Which delayed due to the creation of nuclear rehabilitation and running over-budget. China has 32 new reactors under construction, And also a new reactor built in South Korea, India, and Russia.
At the same time, at least 100 old and small reactors will probably “close in the next 10-15 years”. So expanded atomic programs in Asia balanced by aging products and nuclear reactor phase-out retirements.
The World Nuclear Association has reported that “by the end of 2012, nuclear power generation has fallen by a year’s biggest since the amount of Japanese fleet remained offline for the entire calendar year”. Data from the International Atomic Energy Agency show that nuclear power plants have produced 2346 TWH electricity globally in 2012 – seven percent less than 2011. These figures explain the full-year impact of 48 power producers during the year. Permanent bonding of eight reactor units in Germany was also a factor. Problems on the Crystal River, Fort Calhoun, and the US two Sen. Unfree Unions meant that they did not produce any power for a full year. While in Belgium Dell 3 and Tihanz 2, there was no action for six months. Compared to 2010, the nuclear industry produced less than 11% of electricity in 2012.
Reactions to Fukushima
Following Fukushima nuclear disaster, Germany has stopped its eight reactors and has vowed to stop the rest by 2022. Italians voted for their country to maintain non-molecule. Switzerland and Spain banned the production of new reactors. Japan’s Prime Minister has called for a dramatic decline in Japan’s nuclear power dependence. Taiwan’s President did the same as Mexico has cut 10 reactors in favor of developing natural gas-based plants. Belgium is considering to remove its molecules by 2015.
The biggest potential market-suspended approvals for China-nuclear power. The construction of a new reactor while reviewing a long molecule-security In other potential nuclear boom markets. India’s neighbors have effectively local opposition, foreign nuclear reactors have increased in the national environment. And threatened to stop new reactor imports, the molecular responsibility a matter of dispute. In Maharashtra, there a collective protest against the French-backed 9900 MW Jaita flood nuclear power project. And the 2000 MW Kudankulam nuclear plant in Tamil Nadu. The state government of West Bengal has refused to allow 6,000 MW of facility near Haripur city. Which to host six Russian reactors.
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There is a little bit of support around the world to create a new nuclear reactor, suggesting a poll for the BBC in 2011. In 23 months, 23,231 people voted in July-September 2011, 23 months. After the global research agency Globasken, Fukushima nuclear disaster managed by BBC News. Moreover, In countries with current nuclear programs. In 2005 the UPA and the US People have opposed this trend more than they did. Most people believe that renewable energy can improve their energy efficiency and meet their needs.
Only 22% agreed that “nuclear power is relatively safe. And is an important source of electricity, and we should make more nuclear power plants”. Conversely, 71% of people believe that their country can “change coal and nuclear energy completely in 20 years by focusing on generating energy from the sun. And wind by becoming very energy-efficient”. Globally, 39% of people want to continue using the current reactor without making new ones. While 30% people now want to stop everything.
Policies By Territory
In March 2011, Fukushima I was reviewing its nuclear power programs after the nuclear accidents, China, Germany, Switzerland, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Philippines. Indonesia and Vietnam are still planning to build a nuclear power plant. In countries like Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal, New Zealand and Norway, nuclear power opposed.
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